Stone Age tools found in the Greater Bengal area indicate human habitat for over 20,000 years. The remains of settlements dating from the Bronze Age of 4000 years.
Ancient Bengal was created by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmese, Indo-Aryans and Dravidians in successive waves of migration. The major urban agglomerations were formed during the Iron Age in the middle of the first millennium BCE, when the polished Black Ware culture of the developed North in the Indian subcontinent. In 1879, Sir Alexander Cunningham identified as Mahasthangarh archaeological ruins of the ancient city of Pundranagara, the capital of the Pundra Kingdom mentioned in the Rig Veda.
The ruins of Wari-Bateshwar are considered by archaeologists as the capital of an ancient Janapada, one of the first cities of the subcontinent. A punch of Indian silver coin marked pieces dating from 600 BC and 400 BC was found on the site. Glass beads excavations suggest the city had trading links with Southeast Asia and the Roman world.
Greek and Roman records of the ancient Gangaridai kingdom, which, according to legend, dissuades the invasion of Alexander the Great, are linked to the strong city of Wari-Bateshwar. The site is also identified with the prosperous commercial center of Souanagoura mentioned in the world map of Ptolemy. Roman noted the geographer’s existence of an important and important port in southeastern Bengal, which corresponds to the modern Chittagong region.
The legendary kingdom of Vanga is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata India covering the region of Bangladesh. It has been described as a maritime nation in South Asia. According to the chronicles of Sri Lanka, Prince Vijaya Bengali led a marine expedition to Sri Lanka, conquering the island and establishing its first registered kingdom. Bengalis has also launched overseas colonization in South Asia, even in Malaysia and modern Indonesia.
Bengal was ruled by the Empire Maurya in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. With its strongholds in the regions of Bengal and Bihar (known as Magadha), the Mauryans built the first geographically extended iron age empire in ancient India. They promoted Jainism and Buddhism. The empire reached its peak under Emperor Ashoka. The Empire Gupta succeeded the third century of our era. According to historian H. C. Roychowdhury, the Gupta dynasty was born in the Varendra region of Bangladesh, corresponding to the Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions today. The Gupta era saw the invention of failures, the concept of zero, the theory of the Earth orbiting the Sun, the study of solar and lunar eclipses and the flowering of literature and Sanskrit theater.
In classical antiquity, Bengal was divided into several kingdoms. The Empire Pala stands out as the largest summer established in ancient Bengali history, with an empire covering most of India’s northern subcontinent at its peak in the ninth century. Were devout Mahayana Buddhist shovels. They have highly patronized art, architecture and education, resulting in the Pala of painting and sculpture art school, the Mahapi Mahara and Nalanda and Vikramshila universities. The proto-Bengali emerged under the rule of Pala. In the eleventh century, the Renaissance Hindu dynasty Sena took power. The Senas were strong Hindu brahmanic promoters and laid the foundation for the Hindu of Bengal. They sponsored their own Indian art school inspired by their predecessors. The Senas strengthened the caste system in Bengal.
Bengal is also a crossroads of the southwest silk road.